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Application of low temperatures to design of devitalized vascular scaffolds


Scientific work of Byzov Denys Volodymyrovych

Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine


Existing methods ofprosthetic arteries of small diameter (≤ 6 mm) have a number of significant drawbacks. The number of autologous vascular grafts is limited, their isolation increases the duration of surgery and traumaticity of their obtaining rises the risk of infectious and inflammatory complications. This study presents the data on the development of devitalized biological vascular prostheses based on xenogeneic arteries. For the devitalization purpose, i.e. for the destruction of the main carriers of antigenicity, cell components, there was used the effect of physical factors: low temperatures and ionizing radiation, which allowed a significant reduction of immunogenicity of xenoarteries while preserving the adequate biomechanical properties. This method big advantageis the possibility of complete failure of aggressive cytotoxic chemicals, remnants of which contribute to the aggravation of re-endotelization and thrombosis. In addition, the great advantage of using the mentioned factors are the possibility of a distinct dosage, standardization, sterilization of biomaterial, long-term low temperature storage of xenografts, and the possibility of establishing the cryobank of vascular devitalized xenoprostheses of necessary dimensions.

This papercoversthe data on histological methods, electron microscopy, and biomechanical properties of arteries after exposure to the factors studied separately and in combination with each other. Current relevance of the task and contemporary directions of its solving with mentioning  their advantages and disadvantages have been described in details. The results of xenotransplantating the arteries’ devitalized sites toexperimental animals with the aim of examining the immunogenicity rate have been presented.The features of the designed surgical model to study the small-diameter arteries in the systemic circulation of experimental animals have been described. The results of an experimentalprosthetic repair of aortic segment with devitalized xenogeneic arteries have been demonstrated.Devitalizedvascular xenoprostheses have been shown to adequately function in a recipient’s organism for at least during 3years, undergoing remodeling, i.e. replacement with the recipient's own tissues.

Considering high price of the medical biotechnological products, development of the low temperature bank of cardiovascular grafts is very prospective commercial project, which can take private and state health care sectors of Ukraine and foreign countries. Potential market outlets are CIS countries, Eastern and West Europe.

The results of the work were published in 8 articles in specialized scientific journals including 1 foreign journal, 1 chapter of monograph; and 14 abstracts of reports at international meetings and conferences. 1 utility model patent of Ukraine was also performed.