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Methods and means of controlling the quality of fuels and increasing the effi-ciency of their combustion


Work number - M 19 AWARDED

Authors:

Zaporozhets A.O., Cand. of Tech. Sc. (Ph.D.), Senior Researcher,

Ivanov S.O., Cand. of Tech. Sc. (Ph.D.), Research Officer,

Serhiienko R.V., Cand. of Tech. Sc. (Ph.D.), Senior Researcher

The goal of the work is to provide highly efficient use of fuel resources with reduced generation of harmful emissions from combustion in boiler units, which includes the development of methods and devices to ensure highly accurate and fast measurement of the heat and energy characteristics of various types of fuel materials and the development of effective technological methods solutions to increase the energy efficiency of boilers.

A system for measuring the heat capacity and heat of vaporization of moisture and organic liquids from non-uniform materials is developed, which implements the method of synchronous thermal analysis. The methods of calibration of calorimetric platforms using a reference primary transducer, which is certified in the installation of high precision, as well as standards of heat capacity and vaporization heat are given. The influence of the non-identity of the heat transfer conditions in diffetionary cells in the determination of the heat of evaporation has been analyzed, and two methods of compensating for such an impact have been proposed.

The dynamics of changes in average temperatures and heat fluxes in the elements of a quasidifferential bomb calorimeter system, the effect of temperature disturbances and scatter of process parameters on the measurement error are investigated. Calorimetric analysis of the calorific value of fuel briquettes, pellets from agricultural waste and municipal solid waste was carried out. A method for reducing the time of measuring the heat of combustion of fuel is proposed and its probabilistic characteristics are analyzed.

A system for controlling the process of fuel combustion in boilers with a capacity to 3.5 MW is presented, based on a stepwise correction of the air-fuel mixture using a broadband oxygen sensor. Criteria for optimizing the regulation of the fuel combustion process while maintaining the stoichiometric air-fuel mixture have been established. Thermal and ecological characteristics of the boiler unit were investigated using the developed system.

A method for improving the accuracy of measuring the coefficient of excess air to reduce the loss of thermal energy in boilers is proposed. A method for predicting the volume concentration of oxygen in the air based on the discrete Fourier transform is proposed.

The results of the research were implemented in the enterprises: “Vinnycjamisʹkteploenerho”, “Rivnestandartmetrolohija”, “NTC enerhetychnoho pryladobuduvannja”, “Poltava-Teploprylad”, “Mashynobuduvannja”, “Ukrekokonsalt”, “Zavod “Elektrovazhmash».

Publications: 151, including on the subject of work 3 monographs (1 ‒ in English); 34 articles (9 ‒ in foreign editions); 30 theses, 11 patents of Ukraine (8 ‒ inventions, 3 ‒utility models). The total number of references to the authors' publications/h-index of work according to the databases are respectively: Scopus - 2/1; Google Scholar - 166/10.

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